Implement stateless design
Service state refers to the in-memory or on-disk data required by a service to function. State includes the data structures and member variables that the service reads and writes. Depending on how the service is architected, the state might also include files or other resources stored on the disk. Applications that consume large memory or on-disk data require larger VM sizes, especially for cloud computing where you would need larger VM SKUs to support high RAM capacity and multiple data disks.
Scale down kubernetes applications when not in use
In order to reduce carbon emissions and costs, Dev&Test Kubernetes clusters can turn off nodes out of office hours. Thereby, optimization is implemented at the cluster level. For production clusters, where nodes need to stay up and running, optimization needs to be implemented at the application level.
Scale Kubernetes workloads based on relevent demand metrics
By default, Kubernetes scales workloads based on CPU and RAM utilization. In practice, however, it's difficult to correlate your application's demand drivers with CPU and RAM utilization. Scaling your workload based on relevant demand metrics that drive scaling of your applications, such as HTTP requests, queue length, and cloud alerting events can help reduce resource utilization, and therefore also your carbon emissions.
Scan for vulnerabilities
Many attacks on cloud infrastructure seek to misuse deployed resources, which leads to an unnecessary spike in usage and cost.
Terminate TLS at border gateway
Transport Layer Security (TLS) ensures that all data passed between the web server and web browsers remain private and encrypted. However, terminating and re-establishing TLS increases CPU usage and might be unnecessary in certain architectures.
Time-shift Kubernetes cron jobs
The carbon emissions of a software system depends on the power consumed by that software, but also on the Carbon intensity of the electricity it is powered on. For this reason, running energy-efficient software on carbon intensive electricity grid, might be inefficient to reduce its global carbon emissions. Carbon aware time scheduling, is about scheduling workloads to execute, when electricity carbon intensity is low.
Use cloud native network security tools and controls
Network and web application firewalls provide protection against most common attacks and load shedding bad bots. These tools help to remove unnecessary data transmission and reduce the burden on the cloud infrastructure, while also using lower bandwidth and less infrastructure.